[13], After the war he resumed his work at Levi's laboratory, but soon he moved, together with Levi-Montalcini, to the U.S., where, at Indiana University, he worked with Salvador Luria on bacteriophages. I moved from Caltech to the Salk Institute in 1962, and in 1972 to the Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratories in London. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975". It came to an end after five yeas, and was not renewed. Renato Dulbecco, renowned virologist and cancer researcher, passed away peacefully at his home in La Jolla, CA, February 19, 2012, 3 days before his 98th birthday. I thus suggested the starting of a genome project in two lectures I gave in 1985 and 1986. Views Duration 21. MLA style: Renato Dulbecco – Biographical. Tasked with a mission to manage Alfred Nobel's fortune and has ultimate responsibility for fulfilling the intentions of Nobel's will. Reaching the Pacific Ocean in Oregon was like arriving at a new world, an impression that continued and increased as we made our way south to Pasadena. Dulbecco was a part of the group which made key discoveries on the functioning of oncoviruses the viruses that can cause cancer when they infect animal cells. born Feb. 22, 1914, Catanzaro, Italy Italian born U.S. virologist. Renato Dulbecco (/dʌlˈbɛkoʊ/ dul-BEK-oh, Italian: [reˈnaːto dulˈbɛkko, -ˈbek-]; February 22, 1914 – February 19, 2012) was an Italian–American virologist who won the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on oncoviruses, which are viruses that can cause cancer when they infect anima The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975, Renato Dulbecco - Nobel Lecture: From the Molecular Biology of Oncogenic DNA Viruses to Cancer. I was urged in this direction by Rita Levi-Montalcini, who was herself preparing to go to another laboratory in USA. One of the reasons for the latter move was the opportunity to work in the field of human cancer. So I went to work with Giuseppe Levi, the professor of Anatomy, where I learned Histology and the rudiments of cell culture. I resolved at that time that I would not like to live anywhere else in the world – a resolution that I changed only some twenty-three years later. In 1940 Italy entered World War II and Dulbecco was recalled and sent to the front in France and Russia, where he was wounded. During this work I became aware of the major difficulty in trying to identify cell types and their roles in both development and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis mediated by oncoviruses closely resemble the process by which normal cells degenerate into cancer cells. Although I liked especially physics and mathematics for which I had considerable talent, I decided to study medicine. Dulbecco and his group demonstrated that the infection of normal cells with certain types of viruses (oncoviruses) led to the incorporation of virus-derived genes into the host-cell genome, and that this event lead to the transformation (the acquisition of a tumor phenotype) of those cells. Since 1962 my scientific life has had the support of my second wife, Maureen, who for some years helped in my experiments. In addition, it is well known that in the 1980s and 1990s, an understanding of reverse transcriptase and of the origins, nature, and properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, of which there are two well-understood serotypes, HIV-1, and the less-common and less virulent HIV-2), the virus which, if unchecked, ultimately causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), led to the development of the first group of drugs that could be considered successful against the virus, the reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, of which zidovudine is a well-known example. In 1948 he published, with Salvador Luria, his first real scientific paper in Genetics on bacteriophage genetics and in 2008 published his last paper in PNAS on breast cancer tumor-initiating cells. at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les I was sent briefly to the French front, and a year later to Russia. Throughout this time he also worked with Marguerite Vogt. There I developed a strong liking for physics, which I put to good use by building an electronic seismograph, probably one of the first of its kind, which actually worked. Despite a strong interest in mathematics and physics, he decided to study medicine. In the end it helped the emergence of the genome project. LA JOLLA --Renato Dulbecco, a Salk Institute professor and Nobel laureatewhosparkedthe Human Genome Project, died on Sunday. From the Molecular Biology of Oncogenic DNA Viruses to Cancer. Renato Dulbecco tra virus e genoma ... dalla diffusione degli antibiotici alla scoperta della doppia elica del Dna, fino ai vaccini contro la poliomielite (Salk e Sabin). For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Laureates in each prize category. [17] As many Italian scientists Dulbecco did not have any PhD because it was not existent in the Italian higher education system (until when it was introduced in 1980[18]). We also started investigating the changes in gene expression in human breast cancer, using two new approaches for improving the results: one was the isolation of pure cancer cells in order to avoid contamination with genes expressed by various types of normal cells present in a cancer; the other was to adopt the SAGE approach to measure gene expression, in order to avoid the complications of the microarray technology. What I remember most of that period, besides my family and the few friends, was the rocky beach where I spent most of my time during the summer holiday, and a small meteorological observatory, where I used to spend lots of my free time throughout the year. The paper had enormous resonance, at first mostly negative, but very soon converted into positive. Molecular biologist who proved that virus-derived genes can trigger cancer. [22] Dulbecco's examinations into the origin of mammary gland cancer stem cells in solid tumors was a continuation of his early investigations of cancer being a disease of acquired mutations. The life I remember begins at Imperia, where I went to school, including the Ginnasio-Liceo “De Amicis”. Dulbecco was born in Catanzaro (Southern Italy), but spent his childhood and grew up in Liguria, in the coastal city Imperia. Look for popular awards and laureates in different fields, and discover the history of the Nobel Prize. Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1974, "Fellowship of the Royal Society 1660-2015", "Howard M. Temin. Within a year I had made two good pieces of work, using my mathematical knowledge, and discovered photoreactivation of phage inactivated by ultraviolet light. At only 22, he graduated in morbid anatomy and pathology under the supervision of professor Giuseppe Levi. In 1973 he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Theodore Puck and Harry Eagle. During these years he met Salvador Luria and Rita Levi-Montalcini, whose friendship and encouragement would later bring him to the United States. "Renato Dulbecco (1914–2012) Molecular biologist who proved that virus-derived genes can trigger cancer", "Renato Dulbecco: Viruses, genes, and cancer", "Renato Dulbecco and the new animal virology: Medicine, methods, and molecules", "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975", "The properties of a mammary gland cancer stem cell", "Distinct populations of tumor-initiating cells derived from a tumor generated by rat mammary cancer stem cells", "Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Renato_Dulbecco&oldid=995576264, California Institute of Technology faculty, Italian military personnel of World War II, Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine, Recipients of the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, Pages using infobox scientist with unknown parameters, Nobelprize template using Wikidata property P8024, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 20:21. All through the student years I was at the top of my class although I was two years younger than everybody else. Renato Dulbecco lived a long life and was active in research even when he was well into his nineties. Renato Dulbecco Nobel Lecture Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1975. Loss of simian virus 40 DNA-RNA hybrids from nitrocellulose membranes; implications for the study of virus--host DNA interactions. Dulbecco Dulbecco, Renato. Renato Dulbecco, Nobel timido del Dna. He died three days before his 98th birthday. 1972 Aug; 69(8):2160-4. I myself started working on an oncogenic virus, polyoma virus, in 1958, and continued until now. Si è spento in California, dove viveva da molto tempo, quando mancavano due giorni ai suoi 98 anni. Ritratto esclusivo 1987: la comunità scientifica internazionale lancia il Progetto Genoma Umano; come coordinatore italiano viene scelto il professor Renato Dulbecco. I also went back to school, enrolling in regular courses in physics, which I pursued for the next two years. At the beginning of 2006, when I will reach 92 years of age, I will give up the Italian connections, and will retire at La Jolla, to follow the work going on at the Salk Institute, and to play the piano. In 1968, he and Joseph Sambrook showed that the viral DNA was integrated into the cellular DNA and proposed that the virus was adding genes to cells, implying that genes cause cancer. In 1992 I was asked by the Italian National Research Council to organize an Italian Genome Project. Renato Dulbecco died on 19 February 2012. Renato Dulbecco. One day I was told by Delbrück that a rich citizen had given Caltech a fund for work in the animal virus field. He had a remarkable career in science that spanned over 60 years. ... Il DNA si può interrompere in punti precisi, facilmente identificabili, che creano i punti di riferimento sulla mappa. After the war he resumed his work at Levi's laboratory, but soon he moved, together with Levi-Montalcini, to the U.S., where, at Indiana University, he worked with Salvador Luria on bacteriophages. He graduated from high school at 16, then moved to the University of Turin. Later in his career, he initiated the Human Genome Project and was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1975 for furthering our understanding of cancer caused by viruses. After taking my MD degree in 1936 I was called up for military service as a medical officer. In quell’anno il presidente degli Stati Uniti, Bill Clinton, annunciò che tutti i geni dell’uomo erano stati individuati e la loro funzione descritta. A year later, however, I was called up again because of the Second World War. Dulbecco was the recipient of the Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology from the National Academy of Sciences in 1974. This autobiography/biography was written Renato Dulbecco è l’uomo che ha lanciato nel 1985 il «Progetto genoma umano». Dulbecco's groundbreaking work on viruses was recognized in 1975 with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (shared with David Baltimore and Howard Temin). In Levi’s laboratory I met two students who later had a strong influence on my life: Salvador Luria and Rita Levi-Montalcini. In 1962, he moved to the Salk Institute and then in 1972 to The Imperial Cancer Research Fund (now named the Cancer Research UK London Research Institute) where he was first appointed associate professor and then full professor. Dulbecco was actively involved in research into identification and characterization of mammary gland cancer stem cells until December 2011. He is survived by David Baltimore, Howard Temin and Renato Dulbecco shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell. Using monoclonal antibodies against our cells we could identify several different types of cells, and proposed a role for them in the development of the gland. [21] His research using a stem cell model system suggested that a single malignant cell with stem cell properties may be sufficient to induce cancer in mice and can generate distinct populations of tumor-initiating cells also with cancer stem cell properties. He found that virus replication either led to a destruction of cells and the release of … Within less than a year, I worked out such a method, which opened up animal virology to quantitative work. After I received the Nobel Prize my research interest shifted to the study of naturally occurring cancers. 10 December 1934-9 February 1994", Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, "Renato Dulbecco, 97, Dies; Won Prize for Cancer Study". I moved to Caltech in the summer 1949. by the Laureate. I continued to visit the Institute of Morbid Anatomy in Torino where I joined in underground political activities together with Giacomo Mottura, a senior colleague. A gene is made of DNA. Il padre ligure è ingegnere del genio civile, che lo manda in Calabria per ricostruire le case distrutte da una serie di terremoti avvenuti all’inizio del secolo. Renato Dulbecco (/dʌlˈbɛkoʊ/ dul-BEK-oh,[4][5] Italian: [reˈnaːto dulˈbɛkko, -ˈbek-]; February 22, 1914 – February 19, 2012)[6] was an Italian–American virologist who won the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on oncoviruses, which are viruses that can cause cancer when they infect animal cells. Renato Dulbecco, Nobel per la Medicina del 1975, ... Ma un altro importante lascito dello studioso è il grande sforzo fatto per sequenziare il DNA umano, che Dulbecco caldeggiò e per il quale si attivò, sollecitando tutta la comunità scientifica a fare altrettanto. Renato Dulbecco, (born February 22, 1914, Catanzaro, Italy—died February 19, 2012, La Jolla, California, U.S.), Italian American virologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1975 with Howard M. Temin and David Baltimore, both of whom had studied under him.. Dulbecco obtained an M.D. In 1936 he was called up for military service as a medical officer, and later (1938) discharged. È stato insignito del Premio Nobel per la medicina nel 1975.. Nato in Calabria, a Catanzaro, a cinque anni si trasferisce in Liguria. di Piergiorgio Odifreddi, da Repubblica Non era solo uno studioso celebre in tutto il mondo, un premio Nobel per la medicina che aveva scoperto, attraverso i lavori sul Dna, un modo per combattere i tumori. At the end of the war my father, who was in the “Genio Civile”, was sent to Imperia, Liguria, where we stayed for many years. From early on at Salk, Renato recognized that the DNA of the virus was the active agent causing cell transformation. During this time I gave up my lab, in order to concentrate on the needs of the Institute, which was going through a very difficult period. I was part of the “Committee for National Liberation” of the city of Torino, and became a councillor of that city in the first postwar city council. With Marguerite Vogt he pioneered the culturing of animal viruses and investigated… Renato Dulbecco Un "cartografo" a San Remo . He was married twice, first to Giuseppina Salvo and later to Maureen Rutherford Muir. In the late 1950s, he took Howard Temin as a student, with whom, and together with David Baltimore, he would later share the 1975 Nobel Prize in Phy… This profession had for me a strong emotional appeal, which was reinforced by having an uncle who was an excellent surgeon. Renato Dulbecco, nato nel 1914, ha lavorato fino a tarda età giungendo ad alcune delle più grandi scoperte nella biologia dei virus, dei tumori e, più recentemente, dedicandosi all'impresa del Progetto genoma umano.. Nobel Media AB 2020. Oncogenic viruses, able to elicit tumour formation in animals, have been on the scientific scene for many years. The Italian Project produced some results, but was handicapped by the isolation of the researchers and the limitation of facilities and financing. . During these years I collaborated with investigators of the National Research Council and of the National Cancer Institute in Milan. He encouraged me and offered me a small salary for working in his group. These successes brought me an appointment first to associate professor, then to full professor at Caltech. In Torino I was a very successful student, but I soon realized that I was interested in biology more than in applied medicine. I moved back to Levi’s Institute and worked together with Levi-Montalcini, who encouraged me to go to the USA to work in modern biology. He was born to Leon-ardo and Maria Dulbecco in Catanzaro, Italy, on February 22, 1914, and he died in La Jolla, California, on February 19, 2012. Renato Dulbecco studied the effect of a simple DNA tumour virus on cultivated cells. I was fascinated by the beauty and immensity of the USA and the kindness of its people. In 1938 I was discharged and returned to pathology. Renato Dulbeccoand his team of researchers, Temin and Baltimore, were able to prove that a normal cell being infected by certain types of viruses (oncoviruses) can result in the build-up of virus-derived genes in the host cell genome. For my degree, however, I went to morbid anatomy and pathology. For this purpose I spent, in the following years, about half of my time in Italy. 22 Dec 2020. So in the autumn 1947 we both embarked for the US. However, the life of routine politics was not for me and within months I left that position to return to the laboratory. This dream became a reality after Luria, who had been in the USA since the beginning of the war, and was working in this very field, came in the summer of 1946 to Torino. These drugs are still used today as one part of the highly-active antiretroviral therapy drug cocktail that is in contemporary use. I remember that memorable trip from Indiana to California with my family in an old car, with our limited possessions in a small trailer behind. Dulbecco, Renato Enciclopedia dei ragazzi (2005) Una vita per il DNA Renato Dulbecco, nato nel 1914, ha lavorato fino a tarda età giungendo ad alcune delle più grandi scoperte nella biologia dei virus, dei tumori e, più recentemente, dedicandosi all'impresa del Progetto genoma umano. Temin and Baltimore arrived at the discovery of reverse transcriptase simultaneously and independently from each other; although Dulbecco did not take direct part in either of their experiments, he had taught the two methods they used to make the discovery.[16]. As demonstrated by Temin and Baltimore, who shared the Nobel Prize with Dulbecco, the transfer of viral genes to the cell is mediated by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase (or, more precisely, RNA-dependent DNA polymerase), which replicates the viral genome (in this case made of RNA) into DNA, which is later incorporated in the host genome. His interest in cancer stem cells was strongly influenced by evidence that in addition to genomic mutations, epigenetic modification of a cell may contribute to the development or progression of cancer. Innovation at Cold Spring Harbor 383 02:13 23. I graduated from high school at 16 (1930) and went to the University in Torino.